Geographic Properties

Full Name: Republic of Poland
Native Name: Rzeczpospolita Polska
Internet Code:.pl
Total Area: 120728 mi² (World Rank: 71st)
Land Area: 117474 mi² (World Rank: 71st)
Continent: Europe
Bordering Countries/Regions: Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine


Population: 41 million people (2023 estimate, World Rank: 37th)
Population Density: 324 people/mi² (2021 estimate, World Rank: 98th)
Population Growth: -0.371 %/yr (2021 estimate, World Rank: 210th)
Life Expectancy: 78.9 years (2020 estimate, World Rank: 65th)
Median Age: 40.9 years (2021 estimate, World Rank: 45th)

Cultural Properties

Languages: Polish (94%), Silesian (1.4%), Kashubian (0.28%), English (0.21%), German (0.16%)
Ethnic Mix: Polish (96.7%), other (2.7%), German (0.4%), Belarusian (0.1%), Ukrainian (0.1%)
Religions: Christianity (96%)
Literacy Rate: 99.8% (2021 estimate)

Capital and Major Cities

Capital City: Warsaw, Mazowieckie
Largest Cities:
- Warsaw: 1.754 million people
- Kraków: 762448 people
- Łódź: 698688 people
- Wrocław: 637075 people
- Poznań: 544612 people

Economic Properties

Currency: 1.00 zł (Polish zlotych), Currency Code: PLN
GDP: $679.4 billion/yr (2021 estimate, World Rank: 21st)
GDP at Parity: $1.428 trillion/yr (2021 estimate, World Rank: 20th)
Real GDP: $598.3 billion/yr (2021 estimate, World Rank: 21st)
GDP per Capita: $18000/yr/person (2021 estimate, World Rank: 73rd)
GDP Real Growth: 6.848%/yr (2021 estimate, World Rank: 60th)
Gini Index: 0.302 (2018 estimate, World Rank: 25th)
Consumer Price Inflation: 5.06%/yr (2021 estimate, World Rank: 59th)


Unemployment Rate: 3.37% (2021 estimate, World Rank: 178th highest)
Long-term Unemployment Rate: 3.25% (2014 estimate, World Rank: 43rd highest)
Labor Force: 18.21 million people (48.35% of population, 2021 estimate, World Rank: 35th)

Business Information

Total Business Tax Rate: 40.8% of profit (2019 estimate, World Rank: 74th)
New Businesses Registered: 41143/yr (5.04% of total businesses, 2020 estimate, World Rank: 36th)

Media and Telecommunications

Internet Usage: 32.23 million people (85.37% of population, 2021 estimate, World Rank: 32nd)
Mobile Cellular Subscriptions: 50.59 million (2021 estimate, World Rank: 32nd)


Vehicles in Use: 17.1 million vehicles (842.6 vehicles per thousand people, 2006 estimate)
Total Road Length: 263460 miles (2003 estimate)


Public Education Spending: 5.19% of GDP (2020 estimate, World Rank: 67th)
Students: 6.998 million people (18.39% of population, 2011 estimate, World Rank: 40th)
Teachers: 458257 people (2020 estimate, World Rank: 30th)

Health Care

Health Spending: $1024.00 USD/person/yr (2007 estimate)
Physicians per Capita: 2.379/1000 people (2017 estimate)
Hospital Beds: 5.2/1000 people (2005 estimate)

UN Human Development Index

Health: 0.886 (World Rank: 43rd)
Education: 0.852 (World Rank: 20th)
Living Standards: 0.829 (World Rank: 46th)
Total: 0.855 (World Rank: 36th, 2015 estimate)
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